"THE TRANSITION FROM TEMPERA TO OIL PAINTS".
INVESTIGATE AND EXPLAIN HOW A SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT IN MEDIA HAS HAD AN IMPACT ON THE VISUAL ARTS.
The transition from tempera to oil paint in Northern Europe, and then in Italy towards the end of the 15th Century, saw many examples of paintings in which the preliminary work was done in egg tempera, while later stages of painting, such as thin transparent glazes, were applied in oil colour, There are many examples of artists work who have changed their technique from the luminously tempera to the characteristic apperance of oil paints such as artist Van Eyks "The Arnolfini marraige" who like many others made this transition and was so significant leaving a huge impact on the visual arts.
A painting medium used throughout the ancient world consisted of tempera, it is pigment combined with an emulsion most important historically being egg yolk and made into a paste with water. One of the oldest painting techniques, tempera was widely used by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, however it appeared in Europe in the 12th and early 13th Centuries and remained popular until it was largley replaced by oil painting in the 15th Century. It was employed by all artists, prior to the invention of oil painting in fifteenth century, traditionally attributed to the Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan Van Eyck. The preparation and sources of tempera are developed by the pigments being extracted from minerals, from then they are combined with an emulsion such as egg yolk, milk of figs which works as an adhesive, water is then added to liquefy the paint. Egg tempera was predominantly used for paintings on wood panels prior to the development of oil painting on canvas. Tempera's characteristics and properties create colours which are matt and dry, however carefully you use tempera paints you can't hide the brush marks and this spoils the illusion of reality.