Chile is a country in southern South America. It borders the south Atlantic Ocean and south Pacific Ocean. Chile is between Argentina and Peru. Chile is thought to be the location of the oldest human settlement in the Americas. In 1535, the first European exploration of the region was made by Diego de Almagro. In 1541, Santiago and several settlements were established. On September 18, 1810, Chilean-born Spaniards declared themselves as a self-governing state and established a governing council. The Spanish were later defeated by Chileans and Argentineans led by Bernardo O'Higgins and Jose de San Martin. On February 12, 1818, independence was declared and O'Higgins was elected supreme director. In 1925, a new constitution was put into effect, and it provided for popular election of the president and separation of church and state.
In the 1930's, Chile went through a depression and few Chilean governments have been able to solve the problems caused by the depression. In Pinochet's new government many factories, banks, and expropriated land was returned to private land owners. Chile sustained economic growth up in to the late 1970's, then in 1982-83 the economy went into a deep recession. Then in 1986-87, the economy began to again grow steadily. In October 1988, Pinochet was rejected and Patricio Aylwin was elected president. In March 1998, Pinochet resigned as commander of the army and became a senator for life. In October of that year Pinochet was arrested and taken to Britain. In July of 2002, Pinochet the court decided that he was mentally unfit to stand the trial. Then he resigned from senator for life. Since Chile was first started it has changed a lot. .
Like its history, Chile's climate changes a lot too. In the north, there are deserts, dry basins few rivers and a very temperate climate; in the central region it is Mediterranean, fertile and has the rugged Andes Mountains, and in the south, it is cool and damp with many forests and lakes.