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Expert Systems

             Within the last ten years, artificial intelligence-based computer programs called expert systems have received a great deal of attention. . An expert system is a computer program that contains stored knowledge and solves problems in a specific field in much the same way that a human expert would. The knowledge typically comes from a series of conversations between the developer of the expert system and one or more experts. The completed system applies the knowledge to problems specified by a user. An expert system stores the knowledge of one or more human experts in a particular field, which is called a domain. The experts are called domain experts. A user presents the expert system with the specifics of a problem within the domain. The system applies its stored knowledge to solve the problem. Artificial intelligence is a result of the merge of philosophy, mathematics, psychology, neurology, linguistics, computer science, and many other fields. Artificial intelligence is a young, energetic, and attractive science. .
             1.) A very important part of the field, therefore, is the development of theories which produce algorithms for reasoning under uncertainty. The tasks in the field consist of development and implementation of methods for decision support as well as construction of specific expert systems. Developers have found that the cost of maintaining a knowledge base, over its lifetime, can be as high as the initial cost of its development. .
             2.) Perhaps the most daunting obstacle facing expert-systems research and development is the so-called frame problem. Though variously theorized for some time, it remains essentially a problem of how to update ("up-data") a world-model in terms of a changing world. There have been many proposals where a semiotic approach is considered: a kind that is foreshadowed by much research on the problem. Computational semiotics is understood here to be the application of semiotic theories to computer systems.

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