Full Inclusion: Are the Schools Ready?.
In 1955, the story of a brave and tired woman named, Rosa Parks was put in front of this country's awareness (What is Inclusion). This woman had gotten historically "tired" of being denied equality. She wanted to be included in society in a full way, something which was denied to people labeled as "black". Therefore, Rosa Parks sat down on a bus in a section reserved for "white" people. When Rosa was told to go to "her place" at the back of the bus, she refused to move, was arrested, and history was challenged and changed. All of this happened because Rosa Parks was tired, historically tired, of being excluded. She had sat down and thereby stood up for inclusion. Another cry for inclusion is being heard today. This cry is being raised by people with disabilities.
In the past, it was quite common for children with disabilities to be institutionalized or home schooled (Kavale, 279). Then, in the early twentieth century, many compulsory attendance laws were passed that enabled some of the children with disabilities to attend public schools. However, in 1919, the Supreme Court declared, in Beattie v. Board of Education, that a school could exclude a child who had a condition that caused him to drool, have face contortions, and slurred speech. This ruling enabled schools to exclude some handicapped children. Later, in 1975, congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which was the beginning of free and appropriate public education to all school age children, regardless of disability (Kavale, 282). This act led to special education programs in public schools. These special education programs essentially segregated disabled students from the general classrooms in public schools, but did provide more individualized attention along with different educational standards. This law was amended in 1990 and was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and then was amended again in 1997.