Looking at the beginnings of civilization, one can identify a common theme between all nations. This theme was and still is that these civilizations were structured and divided according to different powers, no matter it being social, economic, or political power. The perfect system for economics and society have been based on a wide array of ideas, ranging from Social Darwinism to needs of all human beings. Adam Smith and Karl Marx were individuals who held widely differing political views on their ideas of the perfect government. Adam Smith has been regarded as the father of modern day economics, and Karl Marx is regarded as the father of communism. .
One of Smiths dramatic conclusions was that people mainly acted out of their own self-interests, and if permitted to follow their own interests it created natural social harmony and economic productivity. According to The Wealth of Nations, a greater division of labor lead to a greater amount of productivity. With division of labor, the process of manufacturing is broken up and branched into its very basic parts, the worker performs one or two basic acts instead of multiple tasks. According to Adam Smith, the size of a particular market limits the divisions and size of a manufacturer, which means that the demand must be equal to or greater than the amount of product. Smith believed that social progress would result from free trade and a self-regulating economy. He stated that government should have a hands off policy when dealing with the economy. On the other hand Karl Marx had differing opinions on how the economy should be run.
Karl Marx's, Communist Manifesto unlike The Wealth of Nations opposed the idea of a free market economy and any form of economic competition. The Communist Manifesto had little impact when it was first published in 1848, but later it became one of the most revolutionary writings in the world and the basis of Marxism.