When people think of philosophy, they often think of highly acclaimed philosophers such as Socrates. Plato, a star student of Socrates, established a school in Athens called the Academy, which taught various subjects. One of Plato's most accomplished students was Aristotle. Plato and Aristotle are known as great philosophers. Although, the former was master to the latter, they do differ significantly in certain views. Study of Plato's and Aristotle's works contributed to various aspects of many people's life.
Alexander the Great conquered much of, what is now Western Europe, during his rule as King of Macedonia. It is not very surprising that he was well educated in thought and reason. He was personally tutored by Aristotle during his childhood before he became king at the age of twenty. Although vastly outnumbered and low on resources, through his cunning he amassed a huge empire (p. 69).
After the fall of the Roman Empire, around 450 CE, there was a decline in the rate of the acquisition of knowledge. And the works of great philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle were nearly lost forever. Fortunately, pivotal pieces of philosophical and scientific literature were being translated into Arabic. These works were stored in a library in Baghdad known as "the House of Wisdom" where they were studied by Muslim scholars. Ancient Greek writings, along with mathematical texts from India, had developed the Arabian scholars into inquisitive, knowledgeable, and methodical thinkers (p. 170).
From Arabic, the classic texts by Plato and Aristotle, along with many new scientific documents were translated into Latin. This led to a surge of information into Europe. The works of Aristotle were so highly regarded that Aristotle was referred to simply as, "the Philosopher" (202). Although most of his works were considered great at the time, there were a few that contradicted what the Church had been teaching.