Many cultural developments took place in the Ancient near east. In the next couple of paragraphs, I will discuss some of these issues: .
One of the reasons that writing became necessary is because the distribution of goods could not be relied upon by memory. Therefore, they developed a system in which they would transmit images by means of symbols to represent specific commodities such as cattle, jars of oil, tools, and so on. This was used to keep track of production, commerce and distribution. These images were in the form of clay pieces formed into objects.
Around 3100 B.C.E., they created what they call a pictograph. This took the place of the clay symbols. This is where they would take the clay formed object and place an item token into wet clay and adding symbols to say the actual number of goods needed. They found it difficult to execute the curves on wet clay so the marks assumed an angular and wedged shape called the Cuneiform.
By 1500 B.C.E., developed an alphabet of twenty two-signs. These signs replaced earlier forms of script and became the basis of all Western alphabets.
It is very interesting how within time it seems like they discovered more and more ways to make tools and weapons. They started with stone. From there they went to copper in which they eventually went to Bronze, which was a lot more expensive to make. Only rich society could afford it. They then discovered iron, which was probably one of the best of them all. It was affordable, durable, better weapons. .
Therefore, cheaper and stronger weapons also meant larger armies that are more efficient. That was a major contribution to the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Persians to conquer vast portions of Mesopotamia. It allowed the empires to grow in size by taking control over territories outside their boundaries. This practice was known as imperialism.
One of the strongest contributions that I believe was made. Was the strong belief in God.