In the rise of nationalist movements and modern nation-states in the 20th century, women are actively participating in the movement for liberation. Throughout the world, much of the liberation of former European colonies and creation of new states stemmed from the active role women took in the struggle for independence.
The documents included in this question relate to how the role of women has changed and how it has stayed the same. In the documents, women of different nations individually speak out on issues such as equality, social responsibility, and the traditional cultural views on women.
One group of documents - #1, #4 â€“ relates the view that the participation of women in their countryâ€™s liberation enables them to achieve equality in their standing with men. According to â€œAn Indian Freedom Fighter Recalls Her Life,â€ (#1) Manmohini Zutshi Saghal recalls that the satyagraha, the nonviolent resistance approach developed by Gandhi, included women and thus allowed them to participate in processions and Congressional meetings. Teodora Ignacia Gomes (#4) of the African Party for Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde in 1974 makes clear that women need to participate in the national struggle for independence in order to achieve their self liberation.
Manmohini, a participant in the Indian struggle for independence, portrays the role of Indian women as restricted before the movement of 1930 â€“ 1932. The success of the satyagraha lay in the fact that Indian women were allowed to participate in the liberation movement of India. The traditional cultural gender role of women was to stay home, except to visit relatives or attend religious festivals. For women, the opportunity to â€œleave their homes and walk in a procession was a big step forward.â€
Teodora Ignacia Gomes argues the point that women need to participate in constructing a society free of exploitation so that