Essay On Traffic Safety
In the traffic environment one aspect that occupies several disciplines is the aspect of traffic safety. All disciplines have to think about that different traffic safety measures have other effects than just reducing the risk of being killed or injured, such as increased travel time, inconvenience, environmental impact, etc. The dividing line between economist and other researchers is that economists study to what limit it is possible for the individual to give up money and wealth in order to improve traffic safety, like the relation between the increase in utility from the safety improvement and the increase in costs induced by the undertaken measure. One recent event that divided traffic safety researchers into two groups was when the Swedish parliament in 1997 decided that the Vision Zero should be the underlying principle of the Swedish traffic safety policy. While most researchers liked the decision, economist strongly disagreed to it. The point of the Vision Zero is zero dead and severe causalities in the traffic environment, and is meant to be a guide for traffic policy makers. One of five principles to justify the Swedish Vision Zero states that “One must always do everything in one’s power to prevent death or serious inju
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration initiated the Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) in 1988. It is intended to complement
This dissertation thesis is part of a project called Economics of Traffic Safety: Methods for Estimating the Value of Safety. The purpose of the dissertation is to further develop the different methods used when estimating individuals’ preferences for safety in the road traffic environment. The intention is that the thesis will consist of some theoretical research, but that the main focus will be on empirical research. One empirical question is the monetary value of safety. The thesis will therefore investigate the trade-off between wealth and safety, and thereby determine the value of a reduced risk of being killed or injured in a traffic accident. These values can then be used to revise the risk values used today by policy-makers when conducting societal cost-benefit analysis of traffic safety. It will also investigate how study design and different conditions can influence the respondents in a stated preference study, and what affect this has on the risk values.
Driver inattention is a major contributor to highway crashes. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that approximately 25% of police-reported crashes involve some form of driver inattention – the driver is distracted, asleep or fatigued, or otherwise “lost in thought” Estimates from other sources are as high as 35-50%. The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety (AAAFTS) is committed to educating the public about issues affecting safety on the roadway. A contract was awarded to the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center to conduct research on “The Role of Driver Distraction in Traffic Crashes.” The goal of the project is to identify the major sources of distraction to drivers and the relative importance of different types of distractions in causing crashes. The project involves a number of distinct yet interrelated tasks, including: analysis of crash data from the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) data file; analysis of narrative data from CDS and North Carolina crash reports; and collection and analysis of field data to determine the revalence and implications of selected driving distractions in real-world driving. This report documents the work carried out to date on the project, focusing on the CDS and North Carolina data analyses. AAAFTS has chosen to focus its efforts specifically on driver distraction, rather than the broader category of driver inattention. It defines distraction as “when a driver is delayed in the recognition of information needed to safely accomplish the driving task because some event, activity, object, or person within or outside the vehicle compelled or tended to induce the driver’s shifting attention away from the driving task.” The presence of a triggering event distinguishes a distracted driver from one who is simply inattentive or “lost in thought.” Safety problems related to driver inattention and distraction are expected to escalate in the future as more technologies become available for use in personal vehicles. During the summer of 2000, NHTSA hosted an Internet Forum on the safety implications of driver distraction when using in-vehicle technologies including cell phones, in-vehicle navigation systems, night vision systems, and wireless Internet. The Forum attracted broad international participation from both the public and private sectors. While cellular telephones and other in-vehicle technologies have been the focus of considerable research within the highway safety community, much less attention has been given to identifying other, non-technological, distractions within the vehicle and their potential role in causing crashes. The last in-depth crash causation research was sponsored by NHTSA and conducted at Indiana University during the mid-1970s. This study, frequently referred to as the Indian
Some topics in this essay:
Mobile Phone, Distraction, Automobile, North Carolina, HP, Vehicle, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Scientific Method, Road Transport, Road Safety,
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