Chemistry is defined as the science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter (especially of atomic and molecular systems). For years chemistry has been divided into four ˜classical' areas: analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical. Chemistry has played a major role in pharmaceutical advances, forensic science, and modern agriculture.
Organic chemistry is essential in biological and medical fields. All living organisms are composed of abundances of organic substances. Evolution of life has been
postulated to have been developed from one single organic compound called a nucleotide. Nucleotides polymerize, or join together to form the building blocks of all life, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Organic compounds constitute various substances in the body, which are vital for life to be sustained. Proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids are organic compounds that contribute to the structure of the human body. Organic compounds also make up enzymes and catalysts that are mandatory for essential biological processes to occur. Also, organic compounds are responsible for governing ion transport channels in the cell, which function in carrying information from one cell to another, and mediating cell-to-cell communication. Failure of ion transport may result in the failure of an important biological process in the body. Pharmaceuticals are another example of mainly organic compounds. The underlying chemistry of molecular behavior in biological systems and the wider importance of chemistry in the health and life sciences are recognized as having been critical to advances in these areas.
Analytical chemistry is the science that addresses methods used to determine the quantitative composition of unknown samples. Although frequently neglected, the nature of the sample and the use of th