A) Explain what is meant by compensatory education?
Many children are culturally and materially deprived, especially in low income areas. This means that they are lacking in important skills, attitudes and values in everyday life which are essential to high educational achievement. To help these children, compensatory education was introduced by the government so that young children can learn how to behave in society and enable them to have more resources such as books and other educational facilities.
B) Name two programmes of compensatory education.
Billions of dollars were spent to create a programme called Operation Head Start. This was a huge programme concentrating on pre-school education which began in Harlem in the 1950s and extended to low income areas across America. This programme aimed to provide a stimulating educational environment.
Another programme in Britain was Educational Priority Areas (EPAs). This was to make sure that low income areas received extra funding for better facilities and teachers. Educational Priority areas were later changed to Educational Action Zones.
C) Identify three changes in gender and achievement between 1975/76 and 1994/95 as shown in item B.
Firstly, more girls than boys are now achieving five or more GCSE's at grade C or above whereas boys were doing better in 1975/76. Secondly, females have now taken over boys and are now doing better at A Levels. Finally, both levels of education are higher now for boys and girls. Both sexes are achieving more than they did before in 1975/76.
D) Identify and explain two advantages of Education Action Zones (Items A and C).
In Item A, it says Education Action Zones ˜would ensure that wastage would be eliminated and equality achieved'. By helping low income areas which have poor education, they will be brought up to a higher standard and make education more equal. This is also good because people will have