The Five Primary Psychological Paradigms
In this paper, I am going to briefly discuss each of the five primary psychological paradigms.
The biological approach assumes that abnormal behaviors are due to somatic of bodily causes. Major emphasis is placed on behavior biochemistry. Supporters of this perspective emphasize the therapeutic actions of drugs is something poorly understood. Critics would argue that symptoms couldn't be explained on a basis of physical maps or changes in our bodies independent of how we reach to environmental events. Thomas Szasz (1961) and Engel's (1977) have strongly criticized such medical model for being outmoded. Engel's proposes that, rather than leaving out psychiatry from medicine as proposed by Szasz, psychiatry should embrace both disciplines and adopt a "biopsychosocial model. With Engel's model, physicians could treat patients in the context of where the patient lives and the society, which may promote in subtle or overt ways maladaptive behavior.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) played a very significant role in the development
of the biological approach. He believed that certain behaviors are inherited. (cited #1and #4)
The psychoanalytic approach assumes that psychopathology is due to the unconscious process, specifically repressed conflicts between the id and ego, and the id and superego. Freud (1856-1939) assumed that much of abnormal behavior results from earlier unresolved issues linked to psychosexual development. Anxiety disorders, for example, occur when earlier childhood needs are not met and later expressed, unconsciously in latent forms filtered by the reality principle. Psychoanalysis is a method of lifting repression so that individuals can more directly deal with such conflicts.
Classical Freudian theory emphasizes that the mind is divided into three parts, id, ego, and superego. The id, present at birth, drives all other aspects of personality. The id is fueled by life-integ