Neonatal and prenatal complications have been shown to occur with greater statistical frequency in persons with schizophrenia than controls. This paper provides an overview of literature relevant to this topic. Neonatal and prenatal complications related to schizophrenia are broken down into four general areas of research: family history, gestational insults, obstetric complications, and neurodevelopmental deficits. Although this research is moving forward, prospective studies have only recently been established; therefore, investigators have been hindered by the difficulties related to retroactive data assessment. This paper reveals some of the areas in which conflicting research has resulted and the attempts researchers have made to overcome these conflicts. In addition, the recent hypothesis of three etiological subgroups of schizophrenia is discussed, as well as areas of research leading from this data.