A most important abiotic factor is the light. It is need for algae and phytoplankton to photosynthesis and then pass energy along the trophic levels. The light from the sun can only reach certain depths so there are several ways the producers catch the light. One way is that they have different types of light catching pigments. Another is that they have larger surface areas on their blades to absorb more light. Plankton have certain mechanisms that allow them to float. Despite all these ways of catching light algae species still have to compete for space to best catch light.
In the ocean, temperature ranges depend on the season and depth of the water. Usually as the latitude increases the surface temperature decreases. A lot of organisms are able to adapt to temperatures changes but most sudden ones that change dramatically can affect organisms adversely. .
Rainfall is very important in ecosystems as water is vital for all organisms. Water that is evaporated from the ocean goes through the cycle then ends up back in the ocean through rainfall so whatever substances have got in the water along the way end up in the ocean. Therefore the organisms can be quite affected by chemicals, rubbish and other forms of pollution.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are dissolved from the atmosphere and they are also released in chemical exchanges. Phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates and carbonates are dissolved in water. Several organisms can adapt to different pH levels and other chemical amounts but some cannot stand too much carbon dioxide and may get sick and die.
The blue whale is the largest animal on earth ever. All its body parts are huge, and its spout shoots up at least 30 feet when it surfaces for air. Whales breath through blowholes that are positioned on the top of its head. Unlike us humans, whales can choose when they take a breath. This is a necessary adaptation as they obviously cannot breath underwater.