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Naturalism and Realism

             Naturalism was a counter movement against melodrama and began in the late nineteenth century in France in attempt. Though Naturalism and Realism are often defined as the same Naturalism differs from Realism in adding a harsher and sorrid attitude to the objective presentation of life. It was a concept developed in detail by 19th century French author Emile Zola but inspired by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Zola's philosophy was based on an objective and experimental presentation of human life, also known as determinism, that is, human motivation and behaviour was absolutely determined by environmental influences, such as social or economic conditions. He aimed to dissect human behaviour and to expose the real forces at play. Great importance was put on costume, props and makeup to perfect the details of reality intending to portray the world naturally, but quite often this aim became too involved in detail and lost track of the overall content. Characteristics of naturalism include a general pessimistic attitude of humanity, being frank about sexual acts and its principal characters being portrayed as representative groups who dismiss free will as just a "nice idea", rather than unique individuals who display subjective decisions. .
             George Shaw Chekhov and August Strindberg were a couple of the playwrights who developed a "naturalistic" style to their writing.
             Developed in the late 19th century realism roots back to the Romanticism era, which was based upon the subjectivity of feelings and desires of an individual and seeing these as the essential dynamics of human action. While Naturalism was the reproduction of social reality, Realism was the reflection. .
             Realism theatre was usually written in three acts and focused on the exploration and development of the character, who was, in loyalty to the realistic concept, a common man and not a god.

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