Retrieval Process and improving memory.
- is a psychological and physiological state in which we are aware of our sensations, perceptions, feelings, thoughts, etc. consciousness is awareness of something, including oneself. .
When studying sensation and perception (but also memory and reasoning) people study consciousness, because these activities occur in a conscious state. .
Wundt was the first to state that the task of psychology is to study consciousness, i.e., sensations that occur in a conscious, aware state. .
James (1890) defined consciousness as a stream i.e. consciousness is continuous, can change direction or focus, has depth (we can be fully aware or half asleep). .
Consciousness/lack of consciousness can be studied both in physiology and psychology .
Degress of consciousness.
- this is the degree of consciousness wherein we become aware of some activities taking place the body. Example: changes in the secretion of body hormones, and the concentration of salt in the blood.
- according to Freud, this refers to those memories that are available to consciousness but are not recallable at a given moment. Example: the tip of the tongue phenomena, that is we know something, such as a name, add know fully well that we know it but the memory is not accessible at the moment, or does not readily come to consciousness.
- this process infer to explain certain behavior like forgotten memories or emotions that we do not understand. Example: unaware of calling someone by the wrong name, revealing a "secret- unintentionally, or by inserting negative in a sentence intented to express something positive.
Modes of consciousness.
active- productive mental activities, e.g.initiating plans.
passive- receptive state, e.g.leaning back to listen to music.
States of consciousness.
- the characteristics of consciousness at any particular moment.
- waking state - the mental processes in that familiar condition can be quite variable.