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             Retrieval Process and improving memory.
             - is a psychological and physiological state in which we are aware of our sensations, perceptions, feelings, thoughts, etc. consciousness is awareness of something, including oneself. .
             When studying sensation and perception (but also memory and reasoning) people study consciousness, because these activities occur in a conscious state. .
             Wundt was the first to state that the task of psychology is to study consciousness, i.e., sensations that occur in a conscious, aware state. .
             James (1890) defined consciousness as a stream i.e. consciousness is continuous, can change direction or focus, has depth (we can be fully aware or half asleep). .
             Consciousness/lack of consciousness can be studied both in physiology and psychology .
             Degress of consciousness.
             Nonconsciousness .
             - this is the degree of consciousness wherein we become aware of some activities taking place the body. Example: changes in the secretion of body hormones, and the concentration of salt in the blood.
             Preconscious .
             - according to Freud, this refers to those memories that are available to consciousness but are not recallable at a given moment. Example: the tip of the tongue phenomena, that is we know something, such as a name, add know fully well that we know it but the memory is not accessible at the moment, or does not readily come to consciousness.
             - this process infer to explain certain behavior like forgotten memories or emotions that we do not understand. Example: unaware of calling someone by the wrong name, revealing a "secret- unintentionally, or by inserting negative in a sentence intented to express something positive.
             Modes of consciousness.
             active- productive mental activities, e.g.initiating plans.
             passive- receptive state, e.g.leaning back to listen to music.
             States of consciousness.
             - the characteristics of consciousness at any particular moment.
             - waking state - the mental processes in that familiar condition can be quite variable.

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