The Communist Manifesto begins with Marx's generalization that " history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." (Howard: 10) Marx describes the classes in terms of binary oppositions, with one party as oppressor, the other as oppressed. The complex and multi-member class hierarchies traditionally organize human societies. It also demises of feudalism, which was effected by the French Revolution. Which brought about a simplification of class antagonism. Society is split into only two classes: bourgeoisie and proletariat.
Marx delineates his vision of history, focusing on the development and eventual destruction of the bourgeoisie, the dominant class of his day. The bourgeoisie class with their growing economic powers. It tries to gain political power. It destroys the vestiges of the old feudal society, which sought to restrict their ambition. Marx thinks bourgeois controls pervasive that he claims, "The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie." (Howard: 11) The proletariat, "wage - labors" who, do not have the means of production of their own. They are necessary consequence of bourgeois modes of production. As bourgeois industries expand and increase their own capital it causes a proportional deterioration of the proletariat. .
The Manifesto outlines how destructive periods of recession are inherent in capitalism. The working class receives far less in wage then the value of the goods they produce. This is the market system a "fetter" of capitalism. The central role that economies play in Marx's view. Marx viewed the progress of history in decidedly materialistic terms. In Marxist language, the superstructure is always determined by the infrastructure, people's thoughts and behaviors are always determined by their social environments. .
This then sees up Marx's theory of human history. Marx claimed a scientific, empirical status for his views, so he could rely on justifications.