In book nineteen, lines 215-313, of the Iliad, an important aspect of the plot is revealed where Achilles is furious to find out that his war-companion, Patroklos, has been slain, and it is because of this that Achilles decides to return to war. Achilles is so furious that he cannot think of anything else, not even food or drink, except to avenge his companion's death. This ties into the plot as a whole because the plot is about the war between the Trojans and the Achaians, and the loss, be it death or separation, of people who are close to main characters.
There are many aspects in this passage that lead the reader to believe that this was an orally composed poem. One of these is the aspect of repetition. Repetition is a vital technique used by oral poets. It is important because the listener of the poem must have time to digest what is being said to him, and repetition allows the mind to move forward while not losing any of the information that has already been said. Repetition is also important to the poet himself, because it allows him to think of what he is going to say next while he repeats phrases of the poem. The Iliad also uses repetition in this passage. One example of this repetition is after someone has spoken, he will repeat "so he spoke" or "so she spoke" so that the listener has an opportunity to understand what has just been said and the poet has time to think of what to say next. .
Another characteristic of oral poetry is the use of epithet, which is a formula that uses adjectives to describe characteristics of gods or goddesses. Epithets go along with repetition in that they help keep the meter of the poem and emphasize a character. Often, epithets will be used in place of a character's name. An example of this in the passage is the referral of Achilles to "son of Peleus," (19. 216) as opposed to simply calling him Achilles. Another example of this is the use of adjectives before or after a character's name, such as "great-hearted," "golden," or "resourceful.