Type 2 Diabetes occurs in 2-4% of the Australian population with 400,000 people suffering from the disease and the same amount of people not knowing they have it. It is more common in males though some women develop it temporarily during pregnancy which puts them at a higher risk later on, especially if they gave birth to a large baby. Type 2 Diabetes is 6 times more common in indigenous Australians than non-indigenous Australians and is even more common in the indigenous females. People who have a higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes include obese people, people with an inappropriate diet, those who lack physical activity, families in which diabetes is heredity and people who are stressed. It becomes more of a risk as your age increases and interestingly, it is more prevalent in identical twins than non-identical twins.
Type 2 Diabetes occurs when the pancreas gland fails to supply insulin for the body to function properly or the insulin that is produced is unable to be used by cells properly. The level of glucose in the blood then spills over into the urine. It can be inherited or caused by obesity, poor nutrition and lack of exercise. The onset is slow with most cases occurring after 40 and the presentation is less acute than Type 1. Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, feeling tired and weak, constant hunger, slow healing of cuts, itching, skin infections, numbness in fingers and toes, blurred vision and unexpected weight loss. Type 2 Diabetes may respond to changes in diet, exercise and weight reduction but occasionally tablets and insulin can be required as well.
The causes of Type 2 Diabetes include obesity, heredity, a diet lacking in fibre and carbohydrates and is high in fat, salt and sugar, physical inactivity, pregnancy (especially if the woman has given birth to a large baby) and old age. The reaction to this is an altered pancreatic secretion of insulin with a delayed response to glucose and resistance to its action in muscles.