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Leadership and Cooperation in Marketing

            The following questions are based on the article entitled "Leadership and Cooperation in Marketing Channels: A Comparative Empirical Analysis of the U.S., Finland and Poland " as well as reviewed the Video Module discussion of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions both of which went above and beyond the textbook description and application of Hofstede's theory. .
             (A) Define and discuss in SUBSTANTIVE DETAIL EACH of the five dimensions of culture as identified by Hofstede.
             Hofstede's research is based on the information of 40 countries, of which he identified the different dimensions on which culture differs. The five dimensions model is widely used in many domains of human social life, and particularly in the field of business. In international marketing it is very useful because it defines national values not only in business context but in general. In each of the five dimensions Hofstede tells us how managers balance and handle different attributes introduced in different cultural systems. The five dimensions consist of:.
             • Individualism versus collectivism (IDV).
             • Power Distance (PDI).
             • Masculinity versus femininity (MAS).
             • Uncertainty avoidance (UAI).
             • Long-term versus short-term orientation (LTO).
             Power Distance (PDI) concerns the degree to which power is distributed and expected in an organization or other culture. The dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The problem here is how the society sees and handles the inequalities among people. Power distance, which most of the time measured at a national level, must also be measured at a individual level as well. I say this because when you look at a country as a whole the country may exhibit high power distance, but the distribution of individuals within the country typically follows a normal curve.

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