This paper deals about the study of diabetes mellitus, the pathology, type of diabetes, further complications if not controlled and management for the prevention of this disease. Diabetes refers to a set of several different diseases. All types of diabetes result in too much sugar, or glucose, in the blood. To understand why this happens it helps to understand how the body usually works. When you eat, your body breaks down your food into simpler forms such as glucose. The glucose goes into your bloodstream, where it travels to all the cells in your body. Your cells use glucose for energy. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps move the glucose from bloodstream to the cells. Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus further explains the concept how this disease works. Pancreas plays an important role of the metabolism of glucose by means of secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon. These hormones where then secreted by .
Islets of Langerhans directly to the blood. Inadequate secretion of insulin results on impaired metabolism of glucose, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which then result to hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Hyperglycemia is the most frequently observed sign of diabetes and is considered the etiologic source of diabetic complications both in the body and in the eye. On the other hand, glucagon is the hormone that opposes the act of insulin. It is secreted when blood glucose levels fall. This is also further explained in the handbook of the Disease Management of Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, which states the following: "Glucagon increases blood glucose concentration partly by breaking down glycogen in the liver. Following a meal, glucose is absorbed into the blood. In response to increased blood glucose levels, insulin is secreted causing rapid uptake, storage, or use of glucose by the tissues of the body. .
Unused glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver. Between meals, when blood glucose is at minimal levels, tissues continue to require an energy source to function properly.