Archaeology: the scientific study of ancient people and cultures principally revealed through excavation.
Cromlech: a circle of megaliths.
Henge: a Neolithic monument, characterized by a circular ground plan. Used for rituals and marking astronomical events.
Megalith: a stone of great size used in the construction of a prehistoric structure.
Menhir: a large uncut stone erected as a monument in the prehistoric era.
Mortise-and-tenon: a groove cut into stone or wood, called a mortise, that is shaped to receive a tenon, or projection, of the same dimensions.
Post-and-lintel: a method of construction in which two posts support a horizontal beam, called a lintel.
ANCIENT NEAR EAST ART.
Statuettes from Tell Asmar 73 35.
Figures of many different heights, hands are folded in gesture of prayer. Their eyes are huge, as if they are in awe, or mesmerized by whatever they are praying to. .
Standard of Ur 74 37.
Two sides: one shows war and the other shows peace. May have been used as a soundbox for a musical instrument. The war side shows the Sumerian king half a head taller than the rest, he is inspecting captives, some being shamed by their nakedness. Figures have broad frontal shoulders, and their bodies are in profile.
Soundbox of a Lyre 74 38.
A lyre is a musical instrument. The lyre itself has a bull's head on it. The soundbox has four panels:.
Top: Sumerian wrestling two bulls that have human heads.
2nd level: wolf carries a table with animal parts, preparing for a ceremony; lion carries wine, a jug, and a cup.
3rd level: donkey plays a bull-harp; a bear dances; seated fox plays a rattle.
4th level: What is thought to be a jackal waves rattles; a scorpion man.
Animals take on human characteristics, figures are in profile but shoulders are frontal.
Ziggurat (Ur, Iraq) 74 41.
HUGE mud-brick building that tapers down so rainwater washes off. The four corners are oriented to the compass. There is a small temple at the top.