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Two Superpowers and the Cold War

             The differing positions held by the United States and the Soviet Union on the various civil wars during the middle of the twentieth century as well as their direct confrontation during the Cuban Missile Crisis led to a major rise in political tension between the two superpowers and contributed to the longevity of the Cold War.
             1) "Despite all Woodrow Wilson's efforts in establishing the League of Nations, the USA did not join the League because of objections raised in the Senate, and Wilson's refusal to compromise ensured that the US would not ratify the Covenant of The League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles. Joining the League of Nations would be like signing a blank cheque - America didn't want to have to ship its troops half way across the world for disputes that didn't concern them. It didn't want to risk its economy or any more American lives after the losses of WW1. The Republicans wanted to return to Isolationism - being an independent country and not involving itself in other countries affairs. America also strongly disagreed with the Treaty of Versailles. Many Germans lived in America and Americans felt it was far too harsh. One of the Leagues aims was to uphold the Treaty of Versailles which made some Americans very averse to joining the league" (wikianswers.com).
             2) In 1945, the Big Three held two conferences – at Yalta (February) and Potsdam (July) – to try to sort out how they would organise the world after the war. It was at these conferences that the tensions between the two sides became obvious. The Potsdam conference though was not successful.
             3) The Soviets had suffered tremendous human and material losses during the war. Approximately 20 million people were killed, thousands of villages, towns, and cities were destroyed, and the Soviet Union's economic infrastructure was devastated. The soviets forced to ally with US resented the U.S. for it.
             4) The soviet government in theory had all of the state power in the hands of the workers, or the soviet union.

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