Throughout history, many advances in science, technology and the ever-changing morals and values of society have presented challenges to religious traditions. These include such challenges as heretical teachings, the black death and more importantly the renaissance and nationalism that challenge the foundational beliefs and values of the religious tradition. All challenges that a religion may encounter affects the religion as a whole. There may be one aspect that is the main focus or target of a challenges but because the aspects are interconnected, what affects one will inevitably bring questioning, tensions or enthusiastic support for and increased participation in others. For example questioning to the beliefs, may affect rituals, social structures, and also sacred texts and other religious writings.
At this time in history the church had not been challenged from around 500 AD to approximately 1500 and remained largely the same. As history progressed many challenges were brought up and corruption in the church was growing exponentially. This was the reason why the church needed a change for the greater good of the religion and also the society of people it had. Martin Luther was a big challenge and also a catalyst to the the criticisms the church had received. Luther challenged the doctrine of apostolic succession/papal authority, which meant the pope and a hierarchy was not required as the laity was equal (made in the image and likeness of God), he rejected the legitimacy of 5/7 sacraments to which he only accepted baptism and the Eucharist as they were the only ones present in the scriptures, he also believed salvation was obtained by faith alone (Sola Fide) which could be gained through prayer and bible study as they learned and loved God through God's selective grace, this meant that there was no need for priests, good works, indulgences or sacraments, he also attacked the Doctrine of Transubstantiation, replacing it with consubstantiation (Body/Blood present alongside bread/wine).