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Infectious Diseases in Brazil - A Public Health Perspective

            The problem of infectious diseases is an important issue to address and discuss because, now, more than ever, people are traveling around the world in numbers never seen before, expanding international trade with food and medicinal biological products, social and environmental changes, urbanization, and deforestation combined with the rapid adaptations of microorganisms leads to the return of once eradicated communicable diseases and the emergence of new ones. With the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, treatments for many parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections have become less effective (WHO). So with travel and trade at an all-time high, an outbreak in one country does not mean the disease is confined to that country, thus making infectious disease a global public health concern. Hypothesis (TBD) will include ideas that future infectious disease programs, treatments, and responses can be modeled off of past successful programs and policies utilizing hybrid models and by collaborating with other government entities. The following literature reviews highlight the history, successes, failures, as well as past and present policies or programs regarding infectious disease in Brazil. Looking specifically at infectious disease in Brazil, Brazil has had many successes and many failures when it comes to combating infectious disease issues within the country. Infectious disease death rates have decreased tenfold in the past 80 years. Respiratory diseases, HIV/AIDS, and dengue have been on the rise since 1980. Despite great reductions in the number of deaths associated with infectious disease over the past 80 years, infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. Diseases like cholera, Chagas disease, and diarrhea have been eradicated through vector elimination and vaccine programs. The distribution of infectious disease deaths has shifted to those more common with high income countries.

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