Background: The global increase in the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major concern of the public health. The growth of cases of T2DM has attained an epidemic number, and the epidemic is anticipated to maintain its rise. The global incidence of T2DM has been predicted to rise up to 438 million by the year 2030. Considering the effect of the disease on affected individuals' quality of life (QOL) and its economic problem it is significant to implement programs to prevent this disease. .
Objective: To critically review relevant literatures on the prevention of T2DM, undertake a systematic review of key selected papers, present a comprehensive report based on the findings of the literature reviewed and make recommendation for practice. Method: A systematic search for relevant literatures was done on these databases: Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, University of Sunderland Library Discover, Science Direct, CINAHL, PubMed, PCYCLIT, Google Scholar, EMBASE, British Nursing Index (BNI) using the Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome (P.I.C.O). Five Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and two Cohort Studies were systematically analyzed using the University of Sunderland Methodological Framework. Data relating to the T2DM prevention strategies and trial outcomes were extracted.
Result: Participants number of 4586 that were at risk of developing T2DM were identified and followed for a period of 1-4 years. The analyses of these studies have demonstrated that T2DM could be prevented or delayed with lifestyle modification. Although these results were in varying degree of effectiveness, this is because of the study setting and intervention method. .