A learning disability can be classified as a neurological disorder in which the person's brain is wired differently. Children who have learning disabilities are often just as smart as or even smarter than their classmates; they simply have difficulties reading, writing, spelling, and organizing information. These disabilities cannot be fixed and are often a lifetime battle. However with support, these people can be successful in school as well as later on in life with a career. A birth defect is a structural or functional abnormality present at birth that can cause physical or mental disabilities. They may be caused by genetics or even the environment. Most birth defects are present within the first three months of pregnancy while their organs are forming. Some are harmless while others require long-term medical treatment. .
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that results from the consumption of alcohol during a mother's pregnancy with her child and causes brain damage as well as growth problems. FAS is characterized by distinctly abnormal facial features and central nervous system problems. People who suffer from FAS may either have problems with learning, memory, attention span, communication with others, vision, and/or hearing. There are numerous symptoms which include damage to physical development, the nervous system and behavior skills. Some of the physical symptoms include distinctive facial features such as wide-set eyes, a short nose, very thin upper lip, and a smooth skin surface between the nose and the upper lip. They also have deformities in joints, limbs, and fingers, slow physical growth before and after birth, small head and brain size, hearing and vision difficulties, and heart defects. Brain and central nervous system symptoms include poor coordination, balance, and memory, learning disorders, delayed development, difficulty with problem solving, trouble with processing information, difficulty identifying consequences of their actions, poor judgment skills, rapidly changing moods, and hyperactivity.