Stem cell are an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cells arise by differentiation[Ste14]. This cell can be manipulated to be able to turn into any type of cell that could be found in a human body. Through stem cell research it could improve numerous amount of people life expectancy. The research outcome could help treat medical conditions. Some conditions are Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and there are more than seventy-five diseases out there that could be resolved through this research. There is an ample different type of sources of stem cell. There are many case studies that show improvement from their condition. .
Some of the stem cells sources are adult stem cells, cord blood stem cells, embryonic stem cells, freckles that yield stem cells, and stem cells from extracted teeth. Adult stem cells, also called somatic stem cells, possess the same basic characteristics of all stem cells[Mur14]. An adult stem cell can have a long term renewal that can be differentiated into specialized cell types. The reason why we have adult stem cell in our body is to repair and maintain specific tissues adjacent to the adult stem cell. The location these adult stem cells are usually found in the skin, bone marrow, brain, blood vessels, liver, and skeletal muscles. The challenges of adult stem cells appear to be the smaller quantities of stem cell and the present of the cells are difficulty of recognizing and separating. To treat medical conditions with adult stem cell you would need several cells to use therapeutically.
Stem cells found in cord blood are actually important precursors to a person's fully functioning immune system also differentiate into white blood cells, vital for fighting infections and safeguarding the body, red blood cells, important for transporting oxygen to cells, and platelets, crucial for clotting[Mur14].