In the book, The Innovators by Walter Isaacson, the idea of "artificial intelligence" is presented as the most conflicting issue. Controversies are among the innovators and scholars who analyze technological fields. According to the Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries, the artificial intelligence industry is growing at an exponential rate worldwide and is empowered by government agencies, private companies and academic research centers (7371). There are many people who doubt that artificial intelligence would ever become a reality but achieving artificial intelligence seems to be the ultimate goal for big technology companies like Microsoft and Apple. There are many reasons behind this conflict. One of the main reasons is based on the definition of the term, "Artificial Intelligence" itself and the criteria required for a machine to be called "intelligent". .
Throughout history, people have developed various tests to measure the intelligence of machines. Some compare the ability of machine to do computational work with humans and argue that machines are intelligent. Others argue that machines lack the ability to make their own decisions and that therefore they are not intelligent. The tests that we use to measure the intelligence of machines compare machines' intelligence with humans and mostly focus on what humans are capable of, ignoring machines' abilities. We are in need of clear criterias to test the intelligence of machines if we want to properly define the term Artificial Intelligence. What are the characteristics that we should look into machines, independently of humans, if we want to categorize them as intelligent or unintelligent?.
What is Intelligence?.
It is important to define intelligence before arguing if something is intelligent or not. What is intelligence? The answer to this question might depend on who we ask. If we ask this question to Math teachers, they might say, "The ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations.