The debate on using genetic engineering is essentially split because some professionals are completely against using DNA alteration to repair diseases or disorders and then there are those who are advocates of genetic engineering. The consideration is all concentrated over one main issue, ethics, meaning whether wanting to create a healthy newborn child by using DNA alteration is ethically veracious or not. Genetic engineering should be use to improve the lives of people from being born with genetic diseases or disorders such as Down syndrome, but it should not be use to program a human being. .
With the rapid growth of the use of technology, researchers are beginning to use genetic technology to obtain a better understanding of the human genome and phenotypes or physical characteristics that result. Genetic engineering, which is also known as genetic modification, is the alteration of genetic substance; it is a scientific alternation of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. The journal Genetic Engineering: The Past, Present, and Future written by PhD Norell Hadzimichallis, describes the process of genetic engineering as a way to produce a useful or desirable characteristic in an organism on a molecular level which include additions, deletion, or targeted changes to the genome (1).
Two of the main scientists who contribute a lot in human genetic engineering modifications and discovered a procedure for replicating using DNA were Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer (6). With preforming special categories of experimentation Cohen and Boyer made appropriate expenditure of enzymes with the persistence of cutting bacteria plasmid in portions. In 1973 bacteria were the first organisms that were generated using DNA modification, and in the late 1974 mice were also generated (1). The method of DNA modification is practical in several fields including biotechnology and pharmacology (3).