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Breast Cancer - Symptoms and Treatments

            Breast Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women in the United States. It accounts for one out of the every three diagnosis in the United States. Breast cancer are said to be malignant lethal tumours which destroys the tissues of one or both breast cells. According to Remedy Health Media (2015) the first discovery of cancer of any sort was the case of breast cancer which was documented around 1600BC. However, an ancient text called Edwin Smith Papyrus found in 1860 in an Egyptian tomb portrayed eight cases of tumours of the breast. Therefore, the first doctors who attempted treating the disease wrote of the strange disease saying "There is no cure".
             A Female breast is made up of blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels collect and move lymph fluid away from the breast and into small bean shaped masses of lymph tissues called lymph nodes. However, the breast consists of fat and fibrous connective tissues. Each breast has about fifteen to twenty overlapping sections called lobes which is further divided into lobules, which are structures that produce milk. Moreover, these glands are linked by tiny tubes called ducts which takes the milk throughout the breast and stored in a chamber below the nipple.
             Moreover, according to Kudson (1997) who proposed a two-mutation theory of cancer causation, cancers are of two types: hereditary and sporadic. Meanwhile, cancer focusing on hereditary states that during fertilization, the zygote (fertilized egg) receives a mutated copy of certain anti-oncogene known as breast cancer predisposition genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2), ATM, CHEK2, P53 (Rivera-Varas, 1998). Eventually, each cell that develops will receive this mutated gene. Meanwhile, for a mutated BRCA gene to develop breast cancer, a second hit mutation must occur to cause the development of breast cancer. As an anti-oncogene, BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene are DNA repair genes which are located on chromosome 17 and 13 respectively.

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