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Integrated Water Management and International Rivers

            Water is the base element of the human, social and economical development. Water is at first a human and agricultural need and at a second level, an industrial need. it is around a water point that a human agglomeration can be formed, and as history teach us that Egypt could not exist without the Nile, each river constitutes the living skeleton of the territories it flows in. That's why, water is a vital resource in all economies and because of overpopulation, mass consumption, misuse, and water pollution, the availability of drinking water per capita is inadequate and shrinking as of the year 2006 . The scarcity of water for human and ecosystem uses leads to intense political pressures especially that there are 261 watersheds and countless aquifers that cross the political boundaries of two or more countries (Wolf A. 2001) and that the control of water resources is considered vital to the survival of a state (Daclon Corrado M. 2007).
             One of those many international watersheds where the challenges are particular is the Jordan River that starts in the Mount Hermon in Lebanon and flows into the Dead Sea. It is from that mount, which forms one of the greatest geographic resources of the area due to its high precipitation, that the four tributaries of the Jordan (Hasbani, Wazzani, Banias & Dan) originate before merging in northern Israel. The river is 251km long and has a total average flow of 1,200 million cubic meters per year. .
             For better or for worse, Jordanians, Syrians, Lebanese, Palestinians and Israelis are bound together by this common geography and by this river that flows in a primarily arid region (Shuval H. 1994). Those countries that share the basin of the Jordan River have extremely limited water resources, and water rights in the basin have been one of the leading causes of conflict in this much-troubled region. Because of the absence of a legitimate water sharing agreement, Syria and Israel have taken over the water supplies and nowadays uses the greatest amount of water available in the basin (Ofori-Amoah A.

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