After the Post-Arab Spring, fundamental changes came to the entire Middle Eastern region. The fall of Saddam Hussein laid a foundation for democracy to be started but also set the groundwork for the rise of ISIS within the nation of Iraq. The Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, also known as ISIS, is a group of extremist Sunni jihadists militants who are now known as the most powerful terrorist organization in the world. The rapidly growing threat of ISIS to the entire world community has risen to take control of Iraq and many other nations within the area. Through all of the events that have occurred in the area, the theory of Constructivism best describes how the current state of ISIS within the region came about due to the conflict caused by social interactions between actors within the region. However, Constructivism is also displayed through examples of ISIS leaders and small party having social interactions that create a level of cooperation so that both parties can succeed and achieve their goals. .
As the leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein had refused to give up his power in 2003. The United States then came into the country and defeated the Iraqi army rather quickly (Frieden). After the overthrowing of Hussein, the United States set the foundation for democracy to begin within the country and then left the nation. "The rise of ISIS in Iraq means that once again we are facing the failure of [the] post-colonial state in the region. Post-Saddam [Hussein] Iraq, which was supposed to become a model of democracy and inclusivity, ended up as a fragile state strongly weakened by ethnic and sectarian divides. (Walsh)". However, a new terroristic power was soon to attempt a run at power within the Middle East. "The roots of ISIS go back to Oct. 15, 2006, when what is known as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) was established. That groups was formed by uniting several groups, most notably al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the Mujahedeen Shura Council in Iraq, and Jund al-Sahhaba [Soldiers of the Prophet's Companions].