A decade had passed after operating under the articles of the Confederation when the framers of the Constitution realize that the states had too much power over their citizens, as a result they created a form of government that balances the powers of the states and the central government, with the central government in charge of the important decisions. In the American Constitution there are stipulated powers of what the national government can do, anything that is not specify in this clauses, can be handled by the states governments. Speaking about the Federal system, it is a mix between unitary and confederal forms of government. In the unitary theory the authority of the country lies in the hands of the national, or central, government. Alternatively, the confederal system consists in a league of independent states, in which the central government created by the league has only limited powers over states. Consequently, the American Federalism is a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and the power of the states. This type of arrangement is also related to the Dual Federalism ideology which is a model of federalism that looks both the national and the state government as co-equal sovereign powers. Neither the state government nor the national government should interfere in the other's sphere. The United States apply a Dual Federalism system according to their constitution. Although, they practice the Cooperative model where both, the State and the Central government share concurrent powers such as taxes and the military. Regardless of this, is the Central Government the entity in charge of making the important decisions.
To illustrate better this type of government, I use the McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) case to explain. It is a case that marked a precedent to the actual Federalism government. The two parties involved where the state of Maryland and William McCulloch, cashier of the Second Bank of the United States.