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Temperature and Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity

             Enzymes are generally used to remove toxins from animal bodies-which includes humans. There are various factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity. This lab investigates how temperature and substrate concentration effects enzyme activity rate. This was tested by analyzing the change in enzyme activity rate in 3 different temperatures 10°C, 35°C, and 65°C. As well as, enzyme activity rate in 3 different substrate concentrations, 3%, 10%, and 20%. The main findings of this experiment lead to the discovery that optimal temperature of catalase is around 35°C-50°C with a slight anomaly of a fast activity rate at 10°C. For substrate concentration, the main findings were that the higher the substrate concentration, the faster the enzyme activity rate. Further experimentation may be done to clear any doubts that were developed in this experiment.
             Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for reactions. This simply means that enzymes lower the activation energy required for a reaction to take place, allowing a particular reaction to take place much quicker and easier. Specific enzymes only lower the activation energy for specific reactions, and enzymes are shape-specific. The unique folds of the amino acid chains that make up an enzyme result in the formation of a specifically shaped active site. When the reactants of a reactions, called substrates, fit perfectly into the active site of an enzyme, the enzyme is able to catalyze the reaction. The activity of enzymes is affected by both the concentrations of enzymes present and the concentration of substrate present. As the amount of enzyme present increases, the rate of reaction increases. Furthermore, as the amount of substrate increases, the rate of reaction will initially increases. Most enzymes require specific environmental conditions to be met in order for them to function properly and efficiently. These conditions include temperature, then concentration of salt, and the pH level.

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