This assignment looks at how enzymes are regulated by factors that affect their activity, such as temperature, substrate concentration, salts, inorganic ions, Ph, and inhibitors. It also briefly outlines four commercial uses of enzymes and how they are important to industrial processes.
Affect of temperature on enzyme activity.
The temperature of a system is to some extent a measure of the kinetic energy of the molecules in the system. Therefore the lower the kinetic energy, the lower the temperature of the system and, similarly, the higher the kinetic energy, the greater the temperature of the system. Http://www.Worthington.biochem.temp/effects.com.html.
Increases in the temperature of a system results from increases in the kinetic energy of the system. This has several effects on the rates of reactions.
1) More energetic collisions:.
When molecules collide, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be converted into chemical potential energy of the molecules. If the chemical potential energy of the molecules becomes great enough, the activation energy of an exergonic reaction can be achieved and a change in chemical state will result. Therefore the greater the kinetic energy of the molecules in a system, the greater is the resulting chemical potential energy when two molecules collide. As the temperature of a system is increased it is possible that more molecules per unit time will reach the activation energy. Therefore the rate of the reaction may increase.
2) The number of collisions per unit time will increase.
In order to change substrate into product, enzymes must collide with and bind to the substrate at the active site. Increasing the temperature of a system will increase the number of collisions of enzyme and substrate per unit time. Therefore, within limits, the rate of the reaction will increase.
3) The heat of the molecules in the system will increase.
As the temperature of the system is increased, the internal energy of the molecules in the system will increase.