Stress is a complex phenomenon that has been defined in many ways. Simply put, it is the wear and tear of everyday life. Stress is a physical and psychological response to perceived demands and pressures from without and within (Kasl, 1996). To respond to these demands and pressures, people will mobilize physical and emotional resources. Too frequent, extreme, or prolonged mobilization strains the person and generates distress signals. The body experiences distress signals in a variety of ways, often in the form of: irritability, anger, anxiety, depression, tension headaches, stomachaches, hypertension, migraines, ulcers, heart attacks, or colitis. Eventually, stress can lead to even more serious distress, such as cancer, diabetes or thyroid dysfunction. .
Stress in the workplace occurs when work related factors contribute to a variety of problems both for the individual experiencing stress and for the organization for which he or she works. The problems can range from reduced performance to violence (Williamson, 1994). Men are seen as having greater stress reaction than women because men have long experienced stress in the workplace. However as more women enter the .
workplace, they are also subject to the same levels of stress.
Stress is positive when it motivates people to attempt challenges that they previously might have avoided. It can prompt people to move outside the boundaries of their comfort zones and thus benefit not only themselves but also those around them. .
Some individuals have a higher or lower tolerance level to stressors in the workplace than others. Furthermore, each individual will display different tolerance levels to different stressors. Recent research is showing that individuals who are by nature extremely competitive, ambitious or impatient may be especially prone to the effects of stress (Furnham, 1997).
Review of Literature.
Recent research indicates that workplace stress is .