The Civil War had settled the issue of slavery and the question of states" rights, but several problems remained. First, the Union had to be reunited and control of the Southern state's governments had to return to normal. Second, the South was in a social downfall. Southerner's spirits had been broken by the war, and the continuing issue of racism was still present. Newly emancipated slaves still didn't have any refuge, and also had little education, also they didn't know where they stood in society. Third, the South's economy wasn't doing good at all. The money that was invested in slaves was gone, plantations fell apart. The president and Congress passed several reforms to attempt to make these problems better, but failed due to the compromise of 1877.
Economic investments, were worthless. The entire economy of the South had gone almost dead. The Most devastating thing to the South's economic problems was the loss of the tons of slaves, which were taken away by emancipation. .
President Lincoln tried to restore the Union as quickly as possible. he offered pardon to "any adherents of the Confederacy who would take the oath to support "the Constitution of the United States, and the union of the States."" Under the condition that ten percent of the voters in a rebelling state should take this oath and slavery would end. .
President Lincoln's plan was lenient towards the South, but it did ensure a quick restoration of the Union. This plan, made some people upset. Radical Republicans were unsympathetic toward the South, they wanted the Union restored , the abolition of slavery, protection for the freed men, and also to retain their majority in Congress. If a majority of voters swore allegiance to the Union then loyal people would be responsible to draw up a new state constitution. However, no one who had held office or had fought under the Confederacy would be aloud to vote or serve as a delegate to a state constitutional convention.