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Five Main Types of Roman Government

            The Etruscan Monarchs were also known as the Kings of Rome. They were all kings and the basis of their authority is that of the Etruscan Empire. They were the supreme rulers whom controlled everything and were backed by the power of the Etruscan military. There were seven Kings in all and the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCE because his son, Sextus, raped a virtuous woman named Lucretia who subsequently committed suicide. This ended the Etruscan Monarch period and made way for the Roman Republic. .
             The two Consuls that were elected were the chief magistrates of the Roman State. The Comitia Centuriata (Assembly of Centuries) elected the two Consuls from the already existing Senate. The role of the Consuls was to create and present laws to the Comitia Centuriata. They were elected annually along with the lesser magistrates. There were two Consuls so that one consul could "veto", or forbid, the decisions of the other; therefore making sure that there was no abuse of power between the Consuls. The patrician vote was the basis of their authority. .
             The Gracchus brothers were both Popular Tribunes and both were elected from the Concilium Plebis (Plebian Tribal Council). Since there was a widening gap between the landowning rich and the urban poor, the Concilium Plebis was established in 494 BCE in order to correct the imbalance. This council also elected two Tribunes, which now had the authority to "veto" decisions made by the consuls. The plebeian vote was the basis of their authority. .
             The First Triumvirate is also known as the Rule of three men and those three men were Pompey the great, Crassus, and Julius Caesar. Standing armies or legions were now used instead of seasonal armies because so few people had land and the farmers that did own land would have to return from campaigning each fall to harvest their crops. In time people came to realize that anyone with a powerful army of legions could overthrow the government in a snap of the fingers and that is exactly what the three Generals did.

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