What are the chemical causes of acid rain? How is acid rain formed? What problems does it cause? How can it be prevented? What are the economics of its prevention? Does Bangkok suffer from acid rain? How would you find out?.
Acid rain is water vapor, which reacts with airborne acids and then falls to the surface of earth. The primary causes of acid rain are acidic oxides , precisely sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxide (NOx- since this can be nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or nitric oxide (NO)) and some carbon dioxide (CO2). Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfurous acid, nitric acid, and carbonic acid which then falls onto earth. .
Sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and carbon dioxide contents in the atmosphere increases by human activity of increasing combustion. Burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas may release sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and carbonic dioxide into the atmosphere as a product if the fuel conations sulfur, nitrogen or carbon. In combustion, sulfur is burned with oxygen, which gives the product as sulfur dioxide. In an equation form:.
S + O2 --> SO2 or sulfur dioxide (Oxidation of sulfur).
C + O2 --> CO2 or carbon dioxide- Complete Combustion (Oxidation of carbon).
2C + O2 --> 2CO or carbon monoxide- Incomplete Combustion (Oxidation of carbon).
2NO + O2 --> 2NO2 or nitrogen dioxide (Oxidation of nitric oxide).
The major causes of emissions of these harmful acidic oxides are:.
Pollutant Major Sources.
Carbon monoxide (CO) .
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Motor-vehicle exhaust; some industrial processes, combustion.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) .
Sulfur trioxide (SO3) Heat and power generation facilities that use oil or coal containing sulfur- coal contains 2-3% sulfur; sulfuric acid plants, combustion, industries which process raw ore containing sulfides in order to obtain copper, zinc, or nickel also cause an increase in sulfur dioxide levels in the atmosphere.