A Tale Of Two Cities is based on a theme of second chances, saving acts, and reformation. An example of second chances and saving acts is Sydney Carton taking the place of Charles Darnay at the guillotine. By doing this he not only gives Darnay a second chance, but gives his own life another chance through resurrection of his own life. Another example of this type of resurrection would be the death of the old regime in France. This led the way for the building of a new improved Paris. This theme is further shown by Doctor Manette's gaining his life back through the love of Lucie. His spirit was "renewed."" The reader thought this as a good morale theme in an otherwise depressing, violent novel. Another theme is that of reformation and self-changing. Carton spent most of his life being a self-centered selfish person. However, his last act in the book is anything but selfish and self-centered (A little stupid none-the-less but at least it was not selfish or self-centered.) Another theme is that of personal sacrifice to achieve goals or happiness. A national example of this is France becoming an egalitarian republic would only come at great costs and losses. At a personal level an example of this is once again Carton's ultimate sacrifice for Darnay but therefore ensuring his spiritual rebirth. The reader thought this a good theme but a theme that is not always true, sacrifice is not always needed for happiness. A final theme in the book was that of the evil and violence shown in revolutions as well as in their revolutionaries. Again this theme was shown on two levels, that of the entire revolution and that of a personal level. Dickens shows the French aristocracy as being shameless exploiters and oppressors through Marquis Evrémonde. A national example is the French peasantry fighting the French aristocracy, fighting cruelty with cruelty, accomplished nothing but more violence and deaths.