THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA: EARLY 19TH CENTURY.
Madison - Madison refused to give Marbury a commission to be a justice of peace. Marbury went to court to find that he had a right to the commission, but they could not force Madison to give it to him. This lead to the power of judicial review installing itself in the Supreme Court - they would now decide what laws were constitutional and which laws were not. This system still exists.
John Marshall - The chief Supreme Court Justice who shaped nearly all of the Court's rulings. Presided over Marbury and Madison and made the judiciary branch coequal with the executive and legislative branches.
Embargo Act - The British and the French issued decrees that basically forbade America to trade with either one of them. Britain was a big threat to the US at this time because of their huge navy - they had been taking people off of American boats (these were people who had deserted the navy in the first place) and forcing them to join their navy. The Embargo Act cut off trade with both countries at Jefferson's consent. It prohibited US ships from leaving for any foreign port. It was Jefferson's attempt at peaceable coercion, and it plunged the US into a temporary depression. People thought Jefferson was unconstitutional in approving of this act, and Madison was elected president the next time around.
War Hawks - Henry Clay and John Calhoun were the main men to whom this term was attributed. They were both eager for war with Britain, and Madison, under the pressure of them and their followers, gave in and declared war.
Lewis and Clark - Two explorers hired by Jefferson that crossed the Rockies, explored the Colombia River, and camped along the Pacific coast. They returned home with beneficial geographic information of the far west, which had been unexplored until their arrival.
Louisiana Purchase - Napoleon obtained Louisiana from Spain, but because of bad luck with Haiti, he began to lose faith in the new world, which lead him to accept an offer from Jefferson, who was concerned because Pinckney's Treaty was void and trade could no longer continue on the Mississippi since it was no longer owned by Spain.