Communication Within the Context of Child Development.
During the first 15-30 minutes after birth, babes with Apgar scores in the normal range of 7-10 display vigorous behaviors and are highly responsive. During the first 60 minutes of life, infants can turn their head toward sounds, follow faces, and even be conditioned to imitate. The infant's first cry initiates filling and expanding the lungs. After their first sleep infants in their first 2-6 hours of age, display responsiveness and autonomic activity. The progressive maturation of sensory and motor abilities refines the quality of information available to infants as they develop. Infant's nuero-motor devl9pment involves the coordination of three systems: regulation of state, reception and processing of sensory stimuli and voluntary control fine gross motor movements. .
During the first year of life, sensory abilities mature quickly, however many infants who are born prematurely are quite hypersensitive and display low threshold for sensory stimulation. The maturation of the central nervous system provides progressively better control and integration of muscular movements through the first year of life. There is no single motor skill that can be used as an indicator of neurological integrity or dysfunction. The development path to walking is a function of the child's muscle tone and personality. Increase in infant's fine motor skills increases his or her capacity to explore and change his or her surroundings. .
Children between 2-5 years of age develop a greater sense of autonomy while simultaneously gaining a greater perspective of others. During this time intellect is a composite of skills, behaviors, and adaptive abilities that makes it possible for one to adjust to new situations. Piaget theorized four major stages of cognitive development, two that which develop during the 2-5 years. .
In the article Zuckerman and Frank say that there are three theoretical constructs that provide a framework for understanding the emotional social development of the child: attachment, separation, and autonomy and mastery.