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Describe theMethod Required to Change the Australian Constit

            A constitution is a group of basic rules by which a country or state is governed. Amendments can only be made to the constitution by a strict process outlined in section 128 of the constitution allowing for amendments to be made orderly and lawfully. Altering the constitution requires a number of stages.
             The consultation stage could involve the gathering of high-ranking people or committee to study the proposals and recommend how it should be written in the constitution. It is a period of community debate.
             The commonwealth parliament must pass a bill to allow for a referendum and the questions to be put on the ballot paper. The Governor-General will call a referendum after the bill is passed through both houses by an absolute majority in exactly the same form. However, section 128 allows for the bill to be passed through only one house if the other chamber obstructs the same bill twice after three months between each submission.
             A referendum is a form of direct democracy which is held between two to six months to allow adequate time for debate and prevent the issue from becoming stale. All adults registered in electoral commissions are required to vote. The dual criteria for a successful referendum includes the majority of voters in Australia (50 percent plus 1) and the majority of states (at least four of six). In addition, if a particular state is affected, there must be a majority vote in that state.
             If the referendum is successful, the Governor-General assents to the bill becoming an act. The changes would be published in the Government Gazette and the amendments will be made to the constitution. If the referendum fails, the bill lapses.
             Only eight out of forty-three referenda questions have been successful since federation. The reasons for the failure of most are the lack of bipartisan support and expensive and well-organised state campaigns against constitutional changes of the federal government due to the threat to states" residual powers.

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