There are various methodologies to foreign language learning. Here I want to mention one method audiolingualism, which begin in the world war two, when the proficient language speakers are badly needed. The US army provided fund for specific language courses that focused on aural-oral skills.
Language mastery is represented as acquiring a set of language stimulus-response chains. Foreign language learning is basically considered as a process of mechanical habit formation. The focus is on the mastery of phonological and grammatical structures and the sequence is assumed to start with phonological level and end up with sentence level. The learning principles include habit-formation, aural-oral, analogy and learning meaning in linguistic and cultural context. Speech is more basic to language than the written form. .
The process of instruction follows an implicit strategy of learning rather than an explicit one. This method acts according to a sequence of recognition, discrimination, imitation, and repetition and memorization procedure. It is an inductive teaching and learning method. Extensive oral practice in a target language-dominant class is the focus of instruction and the use of the mother tongue is discouraged.
Since Audiolingualism was theoretically based on the dominant linguistic and learning theory of the time, it demanded a complete reorientation of the foreign language curriculum. As for its objectives, two types of objectives were distinguished, those of the short-term and those of the long-term. The short-term objectives include as Brooks (1964) has stated, "training in listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation, and recognition of speech symbols and reproduction of these symbols in writing. The long-term objectives include mastery of native-like language.
The Audio-lingual Method benefits from an analytic, structure-based and linguistic syllabus to language teaching.