From sugar to crystals, and hydrogen and oxygen to water, bonds are all around us, but how do they happen. How can you go from two dangerous chemicals such as sodium and chlorine and turn it into the table salt we eat every day?.
All elements contain atoms. The elements come together to form compounds that contain hundreds of atoms of different types. Atoms are made up of three smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons, which are neutral, are found in the nucleus of the atom. Protons have a single positive charge. Electrons have a single negative charge. Normally, atoms are electrically neutral so that the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. Electrons orbit around the nucleus. In a bond the electrons get transferred between the elements/compounds. .
There are two main types of bonds, covalent and ionic. They are very different from one another.
Covalent Bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons. Covalent bonds usually form between two or more nonmetals. There are different types of covalent bonds such as polar and nonpolar. Polar bonds are covalent bonds where electrons are shared unequally. Nonpolar bonds are where the electrons are shared equally.
Ionic Bonds are attractions between negative and positive ions. Think of the two ends of a magnet. One is called the south end and the other is the north. When the two are put near each other they pull together because one has a plus charge and the other has a negative but when two plus sides or two negative sides are put near each other they push apart. Ionic bonds only form between metals and nonmetals. .
Atoms bond because they have either a positive or negative charge and they need to share them in order to make it a neutral atom. For example if you have an atom with a negative one charge and another that is positive one they bond together to form a compound that is neutral.