Critical thinking involves deliberating in a purposeful, organized manner to assess the value of information.
The following barriers to critical thinking.
1. Existing beliefs: we are culturally conditioned to resist change and feel that own way is best.
2. Wishful thinking: believing things that we know are not true because we want them to be true.
3. Hasty Moral Judgments: Do you tend to evaluate someone or something as good or bad, right or wrong, and remain fixed in this thinking? Such judgments are often prejudiced, intolerant, emotional, and self-righteous. .
4. Reliance on Authority: Government, doctors, religious leaders, and teachers do thinking for them.
5. Labels: Labels oversimplify, distort the truth, stereotype, and often incite anger and rejection.
Recognize an argument.
An argument is an assertion or set of assertions that supports a conclusion and is intended to persuade.
Four steps in critical thinking:.
1. Identify the issue.
The issue in argument is what the author is trying to convince you to believe .
2. Identify the support for the argument.
_The supports are the reasons or evidence.
_Type of supporting details: Facts, Examples, Analogies, Authority, Causal, Common knowledge, Statistics, Personal experiences.
3. Evaluate the support.
_Valid arguments are logically supported by well reasons or evidence, whereas Fallacious arguments can be supported by the crafty use of reason or evidence.
I. Relevance Fallacies: Testimonial, Transfer, Ad Hominem, Bandwagon, Straw Person, Misleading Analogy or Faulty comparison, Red Herring.
II. Believability Fallacies: Incomplete Facts or Card Stacking, Misinterpreted Statistics, Overgeneralization or Hasty Generalization, Questionable Authority, Hypostatization.
III. Consistency Fallacies: Appeal to Pity, Appeal to Emotion, Oversimplification or Either/Or argument, Begging the Question or Circular Reasoning, Slippery Slope, Non Sequitur, Post Hoc Ergo propter Hoc.