A Villanelle is a fixed form type of poem that is set into six stanzas and contains 19 lines. These lines can be divided into the stanzas in anyway. The rhyme scheme is the last word in the first line and the second line of each subsequent stanza. Dylan Thomas's poem "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night" on page 895 is a great example of a villanelle because it shows how the proper rhyme scheme can make a poem. The poem lines in each stanza rhyme "night" (1), "right" (4) and so on. The second lines of each stanza also rhyme in the ending with "day" (2), "they" (5), "bay" (8) and so on. The villanelle is also characterized by the reusing of last line switching it from stanza to stanza and ending with both as the last two lines of the poem. It is the reoccurring theme that makes the poem intense.
An allusion is a reference to a person, place, thing, or idea in literature. It is used to bring ideas outside of the written work to imply some meaning upon the work. It is used more for the cultured and upper class. An example of an allusion is in T. S. Eliot's poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" on pages 1068-1072. Eliot uses an allusion in the epigraph and cites Dante's "Inferno". It is written in Italian so only the most cultured English speakers can understand it. It is used to describe Prufrock's views of hell and is a premonition of his lonely demise as he states on line 125. "I do not think they will sing to me " (125), showing that his I not a man any longer. It speaks of the ultimate ending of his life. .
An Image is a poets verbal thoughts on the world. Poets use different words to try and bring visual pictures to the readers mind, along with emotions. Some images are bright and clear while, others are dark and bleak. The poet uses these images to set the stage for the world around us. An example of Image use is in Charles Simic's "Filthy Landscape" on pages 772-773. The image the poem is trying to convey is that of a landfill or garbage dump.