"In the 14th and 15th centuries the achievements of the High Middle Ages were challenged by a series of crises which threatened to undermine the progress which had been achieved before 1300."(Covington) Before the birth of the Renaissance, serious social, political, and health problems led to the closing of the Middle Ages Era. Disbelief in culture and many uprisings in society led many Europeans to question their way of life. The constant problems in society led to a domino effect which eventually resulted in the downfall of the Middle Ages. The breakdown of medieval synthesis was caused by factors such as the Black Plague, decline of papacy, warfare, and social tensions. .
A big impact on medieval life was the Black Plague. The Black Plague was "an infectious and widespread outbreak of disease, generally carried by fleas that infected other animals." (Bunson 369) The disease "was of two strains, bubonic and pneumonic, but the most deadly was called spticimic plague." (Bunson 369) The loss of life due to the epidemic was tremendous. "Europe lost two-thirds to three-fourths of their population." (Bunson 369) The plague ravaged through Europe and destroyed the entire European way of life. "Reactions to the epidemic varied to casting blame on the Jews to the creation of the fanatic religious groups." (Bunson 369) The new epidemic completely changed the way people in the Middle Ages lived and thought. The plague caused employment to plummet and forced people into hiding. The effect of the Black Plague was one of the major factors leading to the collapse of medieval synthesis. .
This era was also a time of warfare and conflicts in much of Europe. Many wars and bitter family conflicts shaped the end of the Middle Ages. "Italy was frequently the site of warfare between various Italian States, Spain witnessed continued warfare between Christians and Muslims, and England and France engaged in a bitter struggle.