Wine has been a huge part of civilization dating all the way back to the Neolithic Period (8500-4000 B.C.) beginning in communities that maintained year round settlements rather than a nomadic lifestyle. They therefore were able to develop cuisines, including wine, specific to their culture. They have been credited with the first production of wine, beer, bread, and many other foods that we enjoy today. In 6000 B.C., they began making porous, indestructible, clay vessels that were ideal for creating wine thus sparking the infinite industry of wine making (Upenn). Wine has endured thousands of generations beginning in the ancient Near East and continues to make a long lasting impression on the world's health, economy, and culture. .
Before discussing how the wine making industry has impacted society, let's first understand how wine is actually made and processed. The first step in making wine is harvesting the grapes. Vineyards are located all over the world, each one with a unique taste and distinct variation. Precise timing in harvesting grapes is very important due to its effect on the grape composition. Premature grapes result in thin, low-alcohol wines whereas late harvesting results in high-alcohol and low-acid wines. After the grapes are picked, they are sent to the winery where they are prepared by either being crushed or pressed and the solid is separated from the juices. Next comes the alcoholic fermentation where the first flavors are produced, then follows the maloactic fermentation process. Red wines are fermented in large steel or wood containers where yeast begins to naturally form under the correct temperature. Light red wines spend two or three days in this step however, the class full red wines may take two to three weeks. White wines are fermented with special cultured yeast at the minimum of a month. After fermenting, the wines must be allowed to mature in which the wine smoothes out.